The “Trojan Couch”

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careful scientist when acting as a researcher, even if citing herself is inconsistent with the high quality she shows in her research.) Though the Lawrence brief references her studies five times, it does not quote them. It is well worth tracking them down in detail. All of Cochran et al.’s findings were published before the due -date for submission of briefs in the Lawrence case. I now cite directly from these articles (the first is taken from Cochran’s & May’s [2000], the second through sixth from S. E. Gilman et al. [2001], and the last three from Mays & Cochran [2001]): . “These data provide further evidence of an increased risk for suicide symptoms among homosexually experienced men. Results also hint at a small, increased risk of recurrent depression among gay men, with symptom onset occurring, on average, during early adolescence.” . “Homosexual orientation, defined as having same -sex sexual partners, is associated with a general elevation of risk for anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders and for suicidal thoughts and plans. Further research is needed to replicate and explore the causal mechanisms underlying this association.”[N.b., at this point in the research sequence, Cochran et al. indicate that the increased association of “having same -sex partners” with various psychopathologies cannot be attributed to extrinsic social factors—rather, the cause is as yet unknown] . “[same-sex] respondents had higher 12-month prevalences of anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders and of suicidal thoughts and plans than did respondents with opposite-sex partners only.…elevated same-sex 12-month prevalences were largely due to higher lifetime prevalences.” . “numerous clinical and community samples have found that lesbians and bisexual women are at greater risk for poor mental health than are other women” (the study cites many other studies). . “self-identified lesbians and bisexual women reported significantly lower mental health” (here they are identifying a particularly accurate study). . “In a more recent study…bisexuals had the highest scores for anxiety, depression, and a range of mental health risk factors, lesbians fell midwa y between bisexuals and heterosexuals” (here they are identifying a particularly recent study). . “elevated prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in lesbian, gay and bisexual respondents as compared with their heterosexual counterparts (1 -9)” (here they are reviewing nine studies with these results). . “Homosexual and bisexual individuals more frequently (76%) than heterosexual persons (65%) reported both lifetime and day – to-day experiences with discrimination. 42% attributed this to their sexual orientation, in whole or in part.” . “Controlling for differences in perceived discrimination attenuated [but did not eliminate] associations between psychiatric morbidity and sexual orientation.”[N.b., following up properly on their earlier findings, the authors now do find at least a partial allocation of causal factors, though not an explicit chain of causality: discrimination alone does not account for the association between psychopathology and homosexuality.] In sum, the latest and best conducted research, perfo rmed by one of the very authors of the brief, directly, extensively, assert the opposite of what amici (among them Cochran herself) claim. Part III. Homosexuality as a Disorder in the Romer Brief The Romer brief presents many of the same problems of the Lawrence brief. Its authors make a series of assertions which they try to substantiate by footnoting references —without including damaging direct quotations—to high quality modern research that contradicts the factual claims