question carefully, and answer it-but not as the activists assert: Social stigma, bigotry and prejudice cannot account for all the increase in psychopathology found in this population. (See below for details). Before moving to examine some relevant studies, a few other problems with the brief should be noted. A detail-less review monograph by John Gonsiorek forms a major foundation, being cited 17 times in its 63 footnotes, and with no attempt to validate the review’s accuracy or to use instead primary sources. The brief’s apparent co -author Gregory Herek’s own publications are referenced 48 times, making him by far the single largest “authority” to whom the authors as a group “turn” to support their arguments. Indeed, when all the explicit self – referencing is tallied up it amounts to 33% of all cited references (including a substantial percentage of reviews), with Herek himself constituting by far the single largest source of “outside” substantiation of the claims being made (by, inter alia, himself). The authors do refer to a universally respected study by Laumann et al. nine times, calling it (as have many others) “the most comprehensive survey to date of American sexual practices,” but do not, as we shall see when discussing the Romer brief, admit its real findings. Study No. 1: The Eli Robins and Marcel Saghir Studies Eli Robins and Marcel Saghir, whose study “Male and female homosexuality: natural history” was one of the two direct sources upon which the APA seemed to depend upon to reach its conclusion to drop homosexuality from the DSM, have published other studies of both male and female homosexuals. It would have been natural for the authors of the brief to have referenced them, but they did not. Note this, however: While in their book and final research monograph, Robins and Saghir stated as a conclusion that between homosexuals and heterosexuals there were no differences in psychopathology,their own studies in fact demonstrate: . Differences in the behavioral patterns and psychology of homosexual and heterosexual males and females. . A markedly greater prevalence of alcoholism among female homosexuals as compared to female heterosexuals. 12 . No difference in completed suicides between homosexuals and heterosexuals, a fact they attributed to the very low percentage of homosexuals in the population, but a markedly greater incidence of suicide attempts by male homosexuals compared to male heterosexuals.13 But here’s the subtlety. The purpose of the particular study presented to the APA was to determine, using a self-administered questionnaire, relative rates of psychopathology in homosexual and heterosexual populations. The problem was the sample. First, the questionnaire was given to male and female homosexuals from so-called “homophile” organizations, including some of the most radical in the “gay liberation movement,” and
Footnotes: 12 Lewis CE, Saghir MT, Robins E., Drinking patterns in homosexual and heterosexual women. J Clin Psychiatry. 1982 Jul;43(7):277-9. Their findings have been repeatedly confirmed. E.g., Hughes, Tonda L., Wilsnack, Sharon C., Research on Lesbians and Alcohol, Alcohol Health & Research World, 1994, Vol. 18, Issue 3. 13 Lewis CE, Saghir MT, Robins E. , Drinking patterns in homosexual and heterosexual women. J Clin Psychiatry. 1982 Jul;43(7):277-9. ; Saghir MT, Robins E, Walbran B, Gentry KA. Homosexuality. IV. Psychiatric disorders and disability in the female homosexual. Am J Psychiatry. 1970 Aug;127(2):147-54.; Saghir MT, Robins E, Walbran B, Gentry KA. Homosexua lity. III. Psychiatric disorders and disability in the male homosexual. Am J Psychiatry. 1970 Feb;126(8):1079-86; Saghir MT, Robins E, Walbran B. Homosexuality. II. Sexual behavior of the male homosexual. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1969 Aug; 21(2):219- 29; Saghir MT, Robins E. Homosexuality. I. Sexual behavior of the female homosexual. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1969 Feb;20(2):192-201.